2009-08-22
Yu Liu
KTA
Views(7,495)
**1. Introduction**

The basic idea of adaptive post/loop filter is the same. Both of them use adaptive wiener filtering technique to improve the quality of reconstructed picture which is degraded by compression. The difference between them is whether the filtering process is applied in or out of the core coding loop, as shown in Figure 1,Â to improve the quality of reconstructed picture or just displayed picture.

Figure 1. Block diagram of JM/KTA

**2. Adaptive Post Filter**

In H.264/AVC, there is already an existing post-filter hint SEI message [JVT-S030/T039/U035] which provides the coefficients of a post-filter or correlation information for the design of a post-filter for potential use in post-processing of the output decoded pictures to obtain improved displayed quality.

To find the coefficients of adaptive wiener filter, the following cost function based on the whole frame is minimized:

(1)

where *R* is the reconstructed picture, *R’* is the filtered picture, and *I* is the original pic[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Adaptive Post/Loop Filters in JM/KTA – Part 1

2009-07-03
Yu Liu
H.265/HEVC
Views(8,252)
As well-known, JVT (a joint video team between MPEG and VCEG) has achieved great success in the standardization of the state-of-the-art video compression, including H.264/AVC, SVC, and MVC. The academic and industry want to continue the success in the collaboration between MPEG and VCEG. Some proposals from VCEG suggest the H.NGVC (or H.265) standardization should be collaboratively done with MPEG to produce a significantly advanced video coding standard and to avoid producing multiple similar standards, whichÂ confuse the market. VCEG agrees that conducting this work jointly with MPEG will be beneficial to avoid duplication of efforts in this area. Therefore, in this MPEG London meeting, a joint meeting between MPEG and VCEG discusses the future collaboration. However, the collaboration method arouses a lot of controversy, focusing on which one of the following practical experiences should be chosen:

- Practical experience 1: MPEG-2, a integrate part of video subgroup when under WG 11 a[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Future Collaboration between MPEG and VCEG

2009-07-03
Yu Liu
H.265/HEVC
Views(20,218)
In the last MPEG meeting, MPEG issued a Call for Evidence (CfE) on High-performance Video Coding (HVC). Nine responses to the CfE are received in this meeting (89th MPEG London).Â Those reponse proposals adoptÂ typical coding tools in KTA, such as adaptive loop filter (ALF), extended macroblock size (EMS), larger transform size (LTS), internal bit depth increasing (IBDI), adaptive quantization matrix selection (AQMS),Â as well as newÂ tools, such as modified intra prediction, modified de-block filter, decoder-side motion vector derviation (DMVD).

The objective experimental results show that 20% average bit reduction is achieved compared with H.264/AVC High Profile for all classes ofÂ test video sequences (Class A: 19%, Class B:25%, Class C:22%, Class D: 15% bit reductions, respectively). Subjective evalution is also conducted during this meeting.Â The purpose of subjective evaluation is identifying examples that give the best evidence and assessing whetherÂ the evidence is large enough. The s[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Current Status of HVC (High-Performance Video Coding) in MPEG

2009-06-21
Yu Liu
KTA
Views(9,506)
**4. ****Rate-Distortion Optimized Quantization**

Previously, adaptive rounding was proposed to improve quantization, which captures the statistics of the incoming residual signal and adjusts the rounding offsets accordingly. However, the adaptive rounding quantization is still based on the criterion which minimizes the mean-squared quantization error between the original signal and the quantization reconstructed signal. From the sense of rate-distortion optimization, the cost from the rate should also be considered.

The basic idea underlying the rate-distortion optimized quantization is to minimize a cost function *D+ Î»R* such that both the rate R and the distortion D are considered in coding decisions. For quantization case, the RD optimal coding is to solve a minimization problem of

Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (7)

where *S* is the original signal, and *T-1* denotes the inverse transform operation. Consider that the DCT is a unitary transform, which maintains the Euclidean d[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Quantization Techniques in JM/KTA â€“ Part 4

2009-06-21
Yu Liu
KTA
Views(5,782)
**3. ****Adaptive Rounding Encoding Technique using an Equal Expected-Value Rule**

As discussed above, if the input p.d.f. is Laplacian distributed and if we can estimate *Î»*, then the optimal *f* can be found analytically. But, usually the estimate of input p.d.f. is not available, then, how to select the rounding offset *f*?

In order to select rounding offset *f* adaptively, an adaptive quantization encoding technique using an equal expected-value rule is proposed by Gary Sullivan from Microsoft. The adaptive adjustment of the rounding offset *f *occurs only in the *encoding* quantization process, which tries to select *f* without using any priori model knowledge on the input *W*. The aim is to make that the mean of the absolute value of the input, |*W*|, is equal to its expected reconstruction value |*Wâ€™*|, i.e.,

Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â (5)

Any values in an interval would be reconstructed to some *Wâ€™*, so the distribution of *Wâ€™* is a probability ma[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Quantization Techniques in JM/KTA â€“ Part 3

2009-06-21
Yu Liu
KTA
Views(7,454)
**2. ****Principle of H.264/AVC ****Normal**** Quantization Scheme**

**2.1. Scalar d****ead-zone quantization**

In this section the principle of H.264/AVC normal quantization scheme is described in a generalized form.

A scalar quantizer for input signal *W* can be decomposed into a function *Z=C[W]* called a classification rule that selects an integer-valued class identifier called the quantization index at the encoder, and a reconstruction rule that produces a real-valued output *Wâ€™=R[Z]* at the decoder. Video encoder applies entropy coding to the quantization indices and communicates to the decoder. Although H.264/AVC JM reference software implements some classification functions, only reconstruction function is standardized.

In the quantization step of the encoder, the transform coefficients of the prediction error are quantized. This quantization is used to reduce the precision of the coefficients. Furthermore, the quantizer is designed to map insignificant coefficient values to zero whilst retaining a reduced [......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Quantization Techniques in JM/KTA â€“ Part 2

2009-06-21
Yu Liu
KTA
Views(15,030)
**1. Overview**

Currently most image and video coding systems and standards, such as MPEG-1/2 and H264/AVC, use transform-based techniques followed by quantization and entropy coding. The key idea is that transforms de-correlate the signal and compact the energy of a block into a few coefficients, which still represent the signal rather accurately after quantization and de-quantization. Nevertheless, this quantization/de-quantization process needs to be carefully designed in order to have the best possible subjective and objective quality.

In the encoder of H.264/AVC reference software, the scalar dead-zone quantization is adopted. In order to improve further the performance, other two adaptive quantization techniques are also introduced, which are both based on how to adjust the size of dead-zone and control the rounding behavior. In this tutorial, we will first introduce the principle of H.264/AVC normal quantization scheme, then discuss the adaptive rounding method which select adaptive[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: Quantization Techniques in JM/KTA â€“ Part 1

2009-04-15
Yu Liu
H.265/HEVC
Views(6,402)
In the 37th VCEG meeting,Â Â held in Yokohama on April 15-18, aÂ potential “NGVC” project standing for next-generation video coding was discussed, which could mean either an extension of H.264/AVC or a new standard, depending on which form of standardization is determined to be appropriate for the technology design.

The preliminary requirements of theÂ NGVC project focus on the following areas.

1. Coding efficiency:

- NGVC should be capable of providing a bit rate reduction of 50% at the same subjective quality

2. Complexity:

- NGVC should be capable of operating with a complexity ranging from 50% to 3 times H.264/AVC High Profile.
- When operated at a complexity of 50% compared to H.264/AVC High Profile, NGVC should provide a 25% bit rate savings compared to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC High Profile at equivalent subjective quality.

3. Applications:

- Low-delay interactive video communications
- Surveillance
- Streaming
- Broadcast
- Digital cinema and large-screen digital imagery
- Mobile video enter[......]

Read more

Permanent Link: The Preliminary Requirements for NGVC